The battle of Arfderydd, fought near Carlisle in 573 (or perhaps 575), appears in many accounts of North Britain. Yet more can perhaps be said on its location and the meaning of its name. This paper thus has two functions: it reviews what has been written on the conflict between 1860 to 2009, and then sets out a new etymology for Arfderydd, with implications for where the action took place.
"The Name and Battle of Arfderydd, near Carlisle,"
Journal of Literary Onomastics: Vol. 2
, Article 1.
Available at: http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/jlo/vol2/iss1/1