The aim of this paper is to present a basis for an understanding of organizational politics and provide various approaches to decreasing its presence and generally negative effects on the organization. Self-interest is a common component of organizational politics and is represented by members’ interests to preserve one’s career (Vigoda, 2000) and to advance one’s career (Randall, Cropanzano, Borman, & Birjulin, 1999). The negative effects of organizational politics can ultimately undermine the overall goals of the organization and include: the playing of favorites (Malik, Danish, & Ghafoor, 2009); poor organizational citizenship behaviors (Chang, et al., 2009); the decline in job satisfaction and increases of job stress (Miller, Rutherford, & Kolodinsky, 2008; an indifferent employee attitude, and poor job performance (Witt, Andrews, & Kacmar, 2000); disruption of return on employee investment (Hochwarter, Kacmar, Perrewe, & Johnson, 2003); and lower morale (Chang et al., 2009). Strategies found effective in reducing organizational politics include but are not limited to: involving employees in decision making, fostering teamwork, building trust and social support, hiring politically under-skilled employees, and basing personnel and program decisions on objective criteria. Politics’ omnipresence across organizations presents a challenge for managers in that it will never be eradicated but must be consistently addressed if organizational outcomes are to be achieved and maximized.
Schneider, Robert C., "Understanding and Managing Organizational Politics" (2016). Kinesiology, Sport Studies and Physical Education Presentations and Papers. 14.