Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Education and Human Development

First Advisor

Dr. Gerald Begy


The purpose of this study was to gain insight on any self-described advantages and/or disadvantages to students of the direct teaching of imaging which will lead to a better understanding of the imaging process. Ultimately, this should lead to improving teaching methods used in imaging instruction.

The subjects were 52 students from two freshman Regents-level English classes in a suburban district in western New York. The program was designed to determine if the direct teaching of imaging had any impact upon students' reading.

The treatment consisted of the direct teaching of imaging and the practice of this technique over a two-month period of time. The teacher started the procedure by modeling a process analysis to the students, and the students practiced writing process analyses in class. Students were assigned to do two process analyses for homework assignments. Imaging was explained to the students, and they practiced directed imaging and wrote about the experience. Students were directed in imaging through the teaching of various short stories and a play. While doing all of these short works, the teacher would stop at specific points within the reading to ask guided imaging questions. The students also wrote in a reflective response journal any reactions they experienced to reading and using imaging. These were shared and discussed with the class. Of Mice and Men was the major work on which the students continued using this process. As they read the novel, they stopped frequently to practice imaging and discussed it. Students wrote in a reflective journal throughout the reading of the novel.

When they finished the novel, students answered a written questionnaire about the effects of imaging on their reading based on their experience. Due to a vacation, over a week passed before students were asked the same questions from the written questionnaire in an oral interview.

All interviews were taped, and journals and written questionnaires were collected. These were analyzed to determine if any significant number of students had similar experiences. After analyzing the data, they were categorized and percentages were tabulated in order to draw conclusions.

Based on the written questionnaires and personal interviews, the direct teaching of imaging had a positive impact on the students' reading for a majority of the students.

This program seemed most beneficial for students who had not previously used imaging; however, even those students who had used imaging prior to class instruction reported the benefits of the program as well.