Reading Achievement Comparison of Special Education Students Instructed Through Pull-Out Programs and In-Class Programs

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Education and Human Development

First Advisor

not legible

Third Advisor

Patricia E. Baker


How best to provide instruction to students with handicapping conditions is an ongoing question in educational research. School systems are increasingly opting to instruct special education students in mainstream settings and adopting "least restrictive setting" guidelines for instruction. This study compares reading achievement outcomes between two groups of students. One group receives instruction in a pull-out program, delivered in a resource room separate from other students, and the other receives instruction in class, with additional assistance from special education instructors. Reading achievement is measured using the California Achievement Test (CAT), prior to and after 10 months of treatment. Statistical analysis of mean pretest scores shows that the two groups are not comparable. Covariate analysis of mean posttest scores does not show any significant difference between the two groups. The study concludes that in this instance neither approach can be shown to produce better outcomes for students.

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