Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Education and Human Development


This study investigated the relationship between field dependence/independence and IQ, field dependence/independence and reading achievement, and field dependence/independence and the effect of a multi-level reading guide on reading comprehension. A sample population of forty-nine eighth grade students was given the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), a measure of field dependence/independence. Scores from the Otis-Lennon Intelligence Test and the Stanford Achievement Test which had been administered prior to the study were obtained from the students' records. The students had been identified as below average in social studies and were members of four classes, all taught by the same teacher. Two classes were assigned to the treatment group, which completed multi-level reading guides while reading their text. The other two classes in the control group read the text without the guides. Pretest and posttest scores on the targeted social studies unit were then compared.

No statistically significant correlations were found between IQ and field dependence/independence and reading achievement. In addition, in the treatment group there was no significant difference in the mean gain score of the field dependents between the pretest and post-test and the mean gain score of the field independents. This analysis leads to the conclusion that for this testing population of eighth graders, IQ is not a determining factor of field dependence/independence, and field dependence/independence is not a determining factor of reading achievement; nor does added structure in content area reading benefit field dependent students more than field independent students.