A pragmatic research philosophy is introduced that embraces mixed-method approaches to applied research questions. With its origins in the work of Peirce (1984), James (1907), Dewey (1931), and contemporary support from Rorty (1982, 1990,1991), pragmatism emphasizes the practical problems experienced by people, the research questions posited, and the consequences of inquiry. As a way to highlight applications of pragmatism in sport psychology, pragmatism is compared to constructivism and positivism in terms of philosophical underpinnings and methodological applications. The pragmatic researcher is sensitive to the social, historical, and political context from which inquiry begins and considers morality, ethics, and issues of social justice to be important throughout the research process. Pragmatists often use pluralistic methods during multiphase research projects. Exemplar design types are discussed that logically cohere to a pragmatic research philosophy.
Giacobbi, Peter R. Jr.; Poczwardowski, Artur; and Hager, Peter F., "A Pragmatic Research Philosophy for Applied Sport Psychology" (2005). Kinesiology, Sport Studies and Physical Education Faculty Publications. 80.
Sport Psychologist Mar2005, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p18-31