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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of water exercises and swimming on physical fitness of children with mental retardation. Nine trainable and 7 educable male children (n = 16) were recruited from a rehabilitation center. The mean ages of the groups were 12.22±0.49 and 14.71±0.52 years, respectively. Training program was applied for 10-week, two times a week for 40 minute each session. Pre- and post-tests measurements were taken for cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, speed, static balance, and agility. Results showed that both groups improved significantly (p<0.05) in all dependent variables. Water exercises and swimming appear to be a viable and effective way to improve physical fitness capacity of the children with mental retardation.

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Yilmaz, I., Ergun, N., Konukman, F., Agbuga, B., Zorba, E., & Cimen, Z. (2009). The Effects of Water Exercises and Swimming on Physical Fitness of Children with Mental Retardation. Journal of Human Kinetics, 21, 105-111. Retrieved from:

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