Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Kinesiology, Sport Studies and Physical Education


Due to the lack of research regarding the quality of auditory cues used in devices for the visually impaired, the present investigation studied the effects of three different frequencies (1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz and 3,000 Hz) on the performance of a sound localization motor task in the absence of visual cues. The sample consisted of fifty-eight normal male and female sixth grade students, who had achieved criterion performance on a pretest for throwing accuracy. The experimental task was performed blindfolded and involved throwing five test balls in an underhand action at a target with each of the three different auditory cues. The sequence of the three auditory cues was randomly determined for each subject. The results indicated that the 2,000 Hz and 3,000 Hz frequencies were better than the 1,000 Hz frequency for localization and that none of the frequencies used enhanced performance consistency over the others. The accuracy results showed that the 1,000 Hz frequency was perceived as being closer and as frequency increased (2,000 Hz - 3,000 Hz) the sound was perceived as being farther away. It is recommended based on the present results that auditory devices that are used to aid the visually impaired in physical education activities involving sound location and accuracy performance should use frequencies of 2,000 Hz and 3,000 Hz in preference to the 1,000 Hz frequency.