Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Kinesiology, Sport Studies and Physical Education

First Advisor

Dr. Jepkorir Rose Chepyator-Thomson


This study investigated the contribution of the motor activity learning medium (MALM) to the development of symbol recall in three and four-year-old children. Eighteen pre-schoolers from Gananda Day Care, in Macedon, New York, were used in this study. They were assigned to either a verbal learning group or an active learning group using a stratified random sampling technique. The children were pre-tested for prior knowledge of the symbols; pi, sigma, theta, and omega of the Greek alphabet. These symbols were taught to children in the verbal learning and active learning groups for thirty minutes for two consecutive days with verbal and active learning teaching methods respectively. A post-test was performed after the second day of instruction and the results were recorded. A retention follow-up test was performed ten days later and the results were recorded.

The data were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test of Differences. While a post-test and a ten-day follow-up test indicated a nonsignificant difference between the verbal learning and the active learning groups in performance, both groups showed gains on test scores. Although the results failed to show statistically significant differences in symbol recall between the two teaching methods, the mean scores for the active play group were higher for both the posttest and follow-up measures. The results showed a positive trend in favor of the active play method.


Repository staff redacted information not essential to the integrity of this thesis to protect privacy.