Jerome Shaffer’s argument against behaviorism and the identity theory assume that the wrongness of causing pain is constituted entirely by that effect. However, the intrinsic wrongness of such actions lies in the intentions of the agent, not in the physical responses of the victim.
Stack, George J.
"Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas of Behaviorism and the Identity Thesis,"
Philosophic Exchange: Vol. 2
, Article 6.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/phil_ex/vol2/iss1/6